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  #21  
Old 19th July 2009, 12:18 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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CHAPTER VI.
On the ministry of this Sacrament, and on Absolution.

But, as regards the minister of this sacrament, the holy Synod declares all these doctrines to be false, and utterly alien from the truth of the Gospel, which perniciously extend the ministry of the keys to any others soever besides bishops and priests; imagining, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, that those words of our Lord, Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven, and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed also in heaven, and, Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained,were in such wise addressed to all the faithful of Christ indifferently and indiscriminately, as that every one has the power of forgiving sins,-public sins to wit by rebuke, provided he that is rebuked shall acquiesce, and secret sins by a voluntary confession made to any individual whatsoever.

[Only a bishop or a priest can minister the Sacrament of Confession; deacons cannot and religious cannot.]

It also teaches, that even priests, who are in mortal sin, exercise, through the virtue of the Holy Ghost which was bestowed in ordination, the office of forgiving sins, as the ministers of Christ; and that their sentiment is erroneous who contend that this power exists not in bad priests.

[As with all the Sacraments, the Sacrament is still valid even if the priest is in a state of mortal sin, or is a heretic or schismatic (as long as the heresy or schism has not changed the Sacrament fundamentally).]

But although the absolution of the priest is the dispensation of another's bounty, yet is it not a bare ministry only, whether of announcing the Gospel, or of declaring that sins are forgiven, but is after the manner of a judicial act, whereby sentence is pronounced by the priest as by a judge: and therefore the penitent ought not so to confide in his own personal faith, as to think that,--even though there be no contrition on his part, or no intention on the part of the priest of acting seriously and absolving truly,--he is nevertheless truly and in God's sight absolved, on account of his faith alone.

For neither would faith without penance bestow any remission of sins; nor would he be otherwise than most careless of his own salvation, who, knowing that a priest but absolved him in jest, should not care fully seek for another who would act in earnest.

[To be forgiven, you must be repentant, and the priest must intend to do what the Church does -- to absolve sins.]
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  #22  
Old 20th July 2009, 04:29 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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Any questions on this material so far?
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  #23  
Old 21st July 2009, 03:39 PM
VKallin VKallin is offline
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I have no specific questions, but I must admit that the amount of church doctrine coming from this council is a little overwhelming.
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  #24  
Old 22nd July 2009, 02:11 AM
Arax Arax is offline
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I think I understand everything pretty well, but I am glad your doing it in such small bites. It takes a while to read and digest.
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  #25  
Old 11th August 2009, 06:39 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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CHAPTER VII.
On the Reservation of Cases
[concerning Confession and the absolution of sins]


Wherefore, since the nature and order of a judgment require this, that sentence be passed only on those subject (to that judicature), it has ever been firmly held in the Church of God, and this Synod ratifies it as a thing most true, that the absolution, which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either an ordinary or a deligated jurisdiction, ought to be of no weight whatever.

[A priest only validly absolves from sin when he has the authority from the Church to absolve sins.]

And it hath seemed to our most holy Fathers to be of great importance to the discipline of the Christian people, that certain more atrocious and more heinous crimes should be absolved, not by all priests, but only by the highest priests: whence the Sovereign Pontiffs, in virtue of the supreme power delivered to them in the universal Church, were deservedly able to reserve, for their special judgment, certain more grievous cases of crimes.

[Certain sins can be reserved to the Pope or to the Bishops for absolution. Also the lifting of certain sentences of excommunication can likewise be reserved. The Pope and the Bishops are types of priests.]

Neither is it to be doubted,--seeing that all things, that are from God, are well ordered-but that this same may be lawfully done by all bishops, each in his own diocese, unto edification, however, not unto destruction, in virtue of the authority, above (that of) other inferior priests, delivered to them over their subjects, especially as regards those crimes to which the censure of excommunication is annexed. But it is consonant to the divine authority, that this reservation of cases have effect, not merely in external polity, but also in God's sight.

[The Church has authority over all the Sacraments, within certain limits, to determine when the Sacraments are valid and to make some limited changes to the criteria needed for a Sacrament to be valid.]

Nevertheless, for fear lest any may perish on this account, it has always been very piously observed in the said Church of God, that there be no reservation at the point of death, and that therefore all priests may absolve all penitents whatsoever from every kind of sins and censures whatever: and as, save at that point of death, priests have no power in reserved cases, let this alone be their endeavour, to persuade penitents to repair to superior and lawful judges for the benefit of absolution.

Even a priest who has committed heresy and schism, or who has left the priesthood, can forgive the sins of a penitent who is near death and who cannot obtain absolution from another priest.
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  #26  
Old 17th August 2009, 01:42 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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CHAPTER VIII.
On the necessity and on the fruit of Satisfaction.

Finally, as regards satisfaction,--which as it is, of all the parts of penance, that which has been at all times recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers, so is it the one especially which in our age is, under the loftiest pretext of piety, impugned by those who have an appearance of godliness, but have denied the power thereof,--the holy Synod declares, that it is wholly false, and alien from the word of God, that the guilt is never forgiven by the Lord, without the whole punishment also being therewith pardoned.

[Confession as a Sacrament has the power to forgive both the sin and the punishment due for that sin.]

For clear and illustrious examples are found in the sacred writings, whereby, besides by divine tradition, this error is refuted in the plainest manner possible. And truly the nature of divine justice seems to demand, that they, who through ignorance have sinned before baptism, be received into grace in one manner; and in another those who, after having been freed from the servitude of sin and of the devil, and after having received the gift of the Holy Ghost, have not feared, knowingly to violate the temple of God, and to grieve the Holy Spirit. And it beseems the divine clemency, that sins be not in such wise pardoned us without any satisfaction, as that, taking occasion therefrom, thinking sins less grievous, we, offering as it were an insult and an outrage to the Holy Ghost, should fall into more grievous sins, treasuring up wrath against the day of wrath. For, doubtless, these satisfactory punishments greatly recall from sin, and check as it were with a bridle, and make penitents more cautious and watchful for the future; they are also remedies for the remains of sin, and, by acts of the opposite virtues, they remove the habits acquired by evil living.

[Penances given by the Church, in the form of indulgences, general recommendations as to penances that can be chosen, and days of fasting or abstinence from meat, and penances given by a confessor, assist us in avoiding further sins, as well as offering satisfaction for the punishments due for sin.]

Neither indeed was there ever in the Church of God any way accounted surer to turn aside the impending chastisement of the Lord, than that men should, with true sorrow of mind, practise these works of penitence. Add to these things, that, whilst we thus, by making satisfaction, suffer for our sins, we are made conformable to Jesus Christ, who satisfied for our sins, from whom all our sufficiency is; having also thereby a most sure pledge, that if we suffer with him, we shall also be glorified with him.

But neither is this satisfaction, which we discharge for our sins, so our own, as not to be through Jesus Christ. For we who can do nothing of ourselves, as of ourselves, can do all things, He cooperating, who strengthens us. Thus, man has not wherein to glory, but all our glorying is in Christ: in whom we live; in whom we merit; in whom we satisfy; bringing forth fruits worthy of penance, which from him have their efficacy; by him are offered to the Father; and through him are accepted by the Father.

Therefore the priests of the Lord ought, as far as the Spirit and prudence shall suggest, to enjoin salutary and suitable satisfactions, according to the quality of the crimes and the ability of the penitent; lest, if per chance they connive at sins, and deal too indulgently with penitents, by enjoining certain very light works for very grievous crimes, they be made partakers of other men 's sins. But let them have in view, that the satisfaction, which they impose, be not only for the preservation of a new life and a medicine of infirmity, but also for the avenging and punishing of past sins.

For the ancient Fathers likewise both believe and teach, that the keys of the priests were given, not to loose only, but also to bind. But not therefore did they imagine that the sacrament of Penance is a tribunal of wrath or of punishments; even as no Catholic ever thought, by this kind of satisfactions on our parts, the efficacy of the merit and of the satisfaction of our Lord Jesus Christ is either obscured, or in any way lessened: which when the innovators seek to understand, they in such wise maintain a new life to be the best penance, as to take away the entire efficacy and use of satisfaction.
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  #27  
Old 17th August 2009, 03:37 PM
VKallin VKallin is offline
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Originally Posted by Ron Conte View Post
CHAPTER VIII.
On the necessity and on the fruit of Satisfaction.

Finally, as regards satisfaction,--which as it is, of all the parts of penance, that which has been at all times recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers, so is it the one especially which in our age is, under the loftiest pretext of piety, impugned by those who have an appearance of godliness, but have denied the power thereof,--the holy Synod declares, that it is wholly false, and alien from the word of God, that the guilt is never forgiven by the Lord, without the whole punishment also being therewith pardoned.

[Confession as a Sacrament has the power to forgive both the sin and the punishment due for that sin.]

.

Does this say that my monthly confession forgives both the sin AND the temporal punishment due to sin. I have always believed that the sin was forgiven, but the temporal punishment remained. Temporal punishment could be eliminated through any extra penance such as fasting, plenary or partial indulgences, etc. Purgatory was then for any temporal punishment not removed by these penances. If this is true, why do we need the plenary indulgence that we can receive on Divine Mercy Sunday, which removes ALL temporal punishment that we might still have on our souls?
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  #28  
Old 17th August 2009, 04:46 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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Originally Posted by VKallin View Post
Does this say that my monthly confession forgives both the sin AND the temporal punishment due to sin. I have always believed that the sin was forgiven, but the temporal punishment remained. Temporal punishment could be eliminated through any extra penance such as fasting, plenary or partial indulgences, etc. Purgatory was then for any temporal punishment not removed by these penances. If this is true, why do we need the plenary indulgence that we can receive on Divine Mercy Sunday, which removes ALL temporal punishment that we might still have on our souls?

If there was no Sacrament of Penance, there could be no indulgence and no remission of temporal punishment on DM Sunday. Also, notice that the requirement of DM Sunday is to go to Confession and receive Communion. So the power of that gift of forgiveness from all sin and all punishment from sin is found in the Sacraments.

Baptism forgives all sins. Confession may forgive any and all sins, with a proper confession. And even the Sacrament of Last Rites can forgive sins. The Sacraments went forth from the side of Christ on the Cross. His salvific death gives us salvation and forgiveness and a well-spring of grace, mainly through the Sacraments.

If you confess your sins properly and are forgiven, but do not do sufficient penance, then you will suffer in Purgatory as a penance. If you do sufficient penance, that penance is made effective by the Sacraments, especially the Sacrament of Confession. So the penance that you do after confession is like an extention or continuation of that Sacrament. As you go to confession time after time, the power of that Sacrament makes your feeble and unworthy penances become worthy and powerful through the Sacrament of Confession, which itself is worthy and powerful through the Cross of Christ.
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  #29  
Old 28th August 2009, 12:52 PM
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CHAPTER IX.
On Works of Satisfaction.

The Synod teaches furthermore, that so great is the liberality of the divine munificence, that we are able through Jesus Christ to make satisfaction to God the Father, not only by punishments voluntarily undertaken of ourselves for the punishment of sin, or by those imposed at the discretion of the priest according to the measure of our delinquency, but also, which is a very great proof of love, by the temporal scourges inflicted of God, and borne patiently by us.

[We can satisfy the temporal punishment justly due because of our sins (1) by volutarily undertaking prayer, self-denial, works of mercy, (2) by doing these same types of penances assigned by our confessor, (3) by accepting the sufferings, small or great, given to us by providence in our daily lives, i.e. our daily crosses.]

ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION

It hath also seemed good to the holy Synod, to subjoin, to the preceding doctrine on penance, the following on the sacrament of Extreme Unction, which by the Fathers was regarded as being the completion, not only of penance, but also of the whole Christian life, which ought to be a perpetual penance. First, therefore, as regards its institution, It declares and teaches, that our most gracious Redeemer,--who would have his servants at all times provided with salutary remedies against all the weapons of all their enemies,--as, in the other sacraments, He prepared the greatest aids, whereby, during life, Christians may preserve themselves whole from every more grievous spiritual evil, so did He guard the close of life, by the sacrament of Extreme Unction, as with a most firm defence. For though our adversary seeks and seizes opportunities, all our life long, to be able in any way to devour our souls; yet is there no time wherein he strains more vehemently all the powers of his craft to ruin us utterly, and, if he can possibly, to make us fall even from trust in the mercy of God, than when he perceives the end of our life to be at hand.
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  #30  
Old 1st September 2009, 02:00 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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CHAPTER I.
On the Institution of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction.

Now, this sacred unction [meaning anointing] of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord, as truly and properly a sacrament of the new law, insinuated indeed in Mark, but recommended and promulgated to the faithful by James the Apostle, and brother of the Lord. Is any man, he saith, sick among you ? Let him bring in the priests of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save the sick man; and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him.

In which words, as the Church has learned from apostolic tradition, received from hand to hand, he teaches the matter, the form, the proper minister, and the effect of this salutary sacrament. For the Church has understood the matter thereof to be oil blessed by a bishop. For the unction very aptly represents the grace of the Holy Ghost with which the soul of the sick person is invisibly anointed; and furthermore that whose words, "By this unction," &c. are the form.

CHAPTER II.
On the Effect of this Sacrament.

Moreover the thing signified and the effect of this sacrament are explained in those words; And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and the Lord shall raise him up, and if he be in sins they shall be forgiven him. For the thing here signified is the grace of the Holy Ghost; whose anointing cleanses away sins, if there be any still to be expiated, as also the remains of sins; and raises up and strengthens the soul of the sick person, by exciting in him a great confidence in the divine mercy; whereby the sick being supported, bears more easily the inconveniences and pains of his sickness; and more readily resists the temptations of the devil who lies in wait for his heel; and at times obtains bodily health, when expedient for the welfare of the soul.
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