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  #1  
Old 20th November 2009, 03:39 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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Default TS 31: First Vatican Council

The Vatican Council, the twentieth ecumenical council, opened on 8 December, 1869, and adjourned on 20 October, 1870. It met three hundred years after the Council of Trent.
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15303a.htm


This council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of 29 June 1868. The first session was held in St Peter's basilica on 8 December 1869 in the presence and under the presidency of the pope.

The purpose of the council was, besides the condemnation of contemporary errors, to define the catholic doctrine concerning the church of Christ. In fact, in the three following sessions, there was discussion and approval of only two constitutions: Dogmatic Constitution On The Catholic Faith and First Dogmatic Constitution on the church of Christ, the latter dealing with the primacy and infallibility of the bishop of Rome. The discussion and approval of the latter constitution gave rise, particularly in Germany, to bitter and most serious controversies which led to the withdrawal from the church of those known as "Old Catholics".

The outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war led to the interruption of the council. It was in fact never resumed, nor was it ever officially closed. As in other councils at which the pope was present and presided, the decrees were in the form of bulls, at the end of which was the clear declaration: "with the approval of the sacred council". Very large numbers attended this council, including, for the first time, bishops from outside Europe and its neighbouring lands. Bishops from the eastern Orthodox churches were also invited, but did not come.
http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum20.htm
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Old 21st November 2009, 04:42 PM
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http://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/V1.htm
http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum20.htm

Pius, bishop, servant of the servants of God, with the approval of the sacred council, for an everlasting record. Most reverend fathers, is it your pleasure that, to the praise and glory of the Holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, for the increase and exaltation of the Catholic faith and religion, for the uprooting of current errors, for the reformation of the clergy and the Christian people, and for the common peace and concord of all, the holy ecumenical Vatican council should be opened, and be declared to have been opened?

The First Vatican Council was held partly to uproot certain errors, as well as to reform the clergy and the laity, i.e. to correct them and to improve their understanding, and to benefit the Christian faith.

1. I, Pius, bishop of the Catholic Church, with firm faith believe and profess each and every article contained in the profession of faith which the Holy Roman Church uses, namely: I believe in one God the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things seen and unseen. And in one Lord Jesus Christ the only-begotten Son of God. Born of the Father before all ages. God from God, light from light, true God from true God. Begotten not made, of one substance with the Father: through whom all things were made. Who for us humans and for our salvation came down from heaven. He was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary: and became man. He was crucified also for us, he suffered under Pontius Pilate and was buried. The third day he rose again according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. He shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the lord and the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified: who spoke through the prophets. And one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the remission of Sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the world to come Amen.

Several different Ecumenical Councils offered creeds to the Church, summarizing some of the main beliefs on which the Faith is based. The Creed that is used today at Mass is most similiar to the Vatican I Creed, which in turn is based on earlier Creeds (which we already covered in studying past Councils). A Creed is a useful summary of the faith, which can also be said as a prayer.

That Jesus was 'born of the Father before all ages' refers to the procession of the Second Person from the First Person. This procession is not a past event, but a timeless fact inherent to the very Nature of the One God. The procession of the Spirit is also in this Creed, and He proceeds from both the Father and the Son, as from one principle.
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Old 23rd November 2009, 07:50 PM
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The profession of faith that began with the Creed, in #1 above, continues with other assertions of faith.

2. Apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions and all other observances and constitutions of that same Church I most firmly accept and embrace.

This states an acceptance of discplines (practices) along with the beliefs.

3. Likewise I accept Sacred Scripture according to that sense which Holy mother Church held and holds, since it is her right to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scriptures; nor will I ever receive and interpret them except according to the unanimous consent of the fathers.

Any interpretation of Scripture contrary to the teaching of the Magisterium, or contrary to the teaching of Tradition (represented here by the example of Tradition found in the unanimous consent of the Fathers) is to be rejected.

4. I profess also that there are seven sacraments of the new law, truly and properly so called, instituted by our lord Jesus Christ and necessary for salvation, though each person need not receive them all. They are:
1. baptism, 2. confirmation, 3. the Eucharist, 4. penance, 5. last anointing, 6. order and 7. matrimony; and they confer grace. Of these baptism, confirmation and order may not be repeated without sacrilege.

Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders imprint a character on the soul; these may only be received once each. When a man is first ordained a deacon, then a priest, then a Bishop, he receives only one Sacrament, with one character, but in three degrees. Although dispersed in time, the three degrees constitute one reception of this Sacrament.

5. I likewise receive and accept the rites of the Catholic Church which have been received and approved in the solemn administration of all the aforesaid sacraments.

The Sacraments are governed by both doctrines (as to their meaning) and disciplines (as to their exact form). Both doctrine and discipline must be accepted by the believing and practicing Catholic.

6. I embrace and accept the whole and every part of what was defined and declared by the holy Council of Trent concerning original sin and justification. Likewise

New Councils cannot nullify the teachings of past Councils.

7. I profess that in the mass there is offered to God a true, proper and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead; and that in the most Holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly, really and substantially the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our lord Jesus Christ; and that there takes place the conversion of the whole substance of the bread into his body, and of the whole substance of the wine into his blood, and this conversion the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation.

This teaching repeats what was already taught by the Council of Trent.
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Old 24th November 2009, 05:22 PM
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The outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war led to the interruption of the council. It was in fact never resumed, nor was it ever officially closed. As in other councils at which the pope was present and presided, the decrees were in the form of bulls, at the end of which was the clear declaration: "with the approval of the sacred council". Very large numbers attended this council, including, for the first time, bishops from outside Europe and its neighbouring lands. Bishops from the eastern Orthodox churches were also invited, but did not come.

Ron,

Is it possible that this Council could be resumed or officially closed in the future? or is it more likely that this Council will stay as it is?

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Several different Ecumenical Councils offered creeds to the Church, summarizing some of the main beliefs on which the Faith is based. The Creed that is used today at Mass is most similiar to the Vatican I Creed, which in turn is based on earlier Creeds (which we already covered in studying past Councils). A Creed is a useful summary of the faith, which can also be said as a prayer.

The decision to include the Creed (which is, by the way, closer to the one from this Council) with the Rosary prayer was from the Church authorities only or was it originated from one of the apparitions to the saints or blessed such as St. Dominic?
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Old 24th November 2009, 06:24 PM
Ron Conte Ron Conte is offline
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Is it possible that this Council could be resumed or officially closed in the future? or is it more likely that this Council will stay as it is?
The official closing of a Council has no real doctrinal meaning. It is merely of the temporal authority; it is not necessary. There would be no point to officially closing the Council in some way. It is closed 'de facto', and so no official closing is needed. It can't really be resumed. The next Council will be a new Council.

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The decision to include the Creed (which is, by the way, closer to the one from this Council) with the Rosary prayer was from the Church authorities only or was it originated from one of the apparitions to the saints or blessed such as St. Dominic?

Very many beliefs and practices develop first among the faithful. Only later does the Church, with Her teaching authority or temporal authority, teach or decide with authority.

Many Catholics incorrectly think of the beliefs and practices as coming from the Pope and the Bishops to the people. Not so. It is usually the other way around. The faithful prayerfully consider the teachings of Tradition and Scripture, including all that is implicit, and an understanding develops among the ordinary faithful, and theologians further develop this understanding, and eventually it is taught explicitly by the Magisterium.

This occurred with the Immaculate Conception; the correct understanding began perhaps as a minority opinion among theologians, esp. Bl. Duns Scotus, then spread among the Fransicans, then among the faithful. This also occurred with the Assumption, though this idea was perhaps first found among the faithful, then more specifically among theologians, then was defined by the Magisterium.

The Pope and the Bishops study theology for many years; they have been living the Faith and studying theology for many years prior to becoming Bishops and Pope. Their understanding is the fruit of the prayerful consideration of the faithful of Tradition and Scripture, and the fruit of many theologians writings.

I'm still working on my commentary on Unam Sanctam (bull of Pope Boniface VIII). There are several sections that are taken or slightly rephrased from various theologians works, including Bernard of Clarveux, Hugh of St. Victor, and St. Thomas.
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Old 24th November 2009, 07:13 PM
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Thanks Ron.
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Old 25th November 2009, 02:34 PM
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The Sacraments are governed by both doctrines (as to their meaning) and disciplines (as to their exact form). Both doctrine and discipline must be accepted by the believing and practicing Catholic.

Ron, I just would like to be clear if the disciplines are fallible and the faithful can accept, yet disagree with one or some of them? Can some disciplines have a margin of error and the sensum fidelis and the Church in general would be able correct them with time?
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Old 10th December 2009, 06:31 PM
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Ron, I just would like to be clear if the disciplines are fallible and the faithful can accept, yet disagree with one or some of them? Can some disciplines have a margin of error and the sensum fidelis and the Church in general would be able correct them with time?

I did not see this post until today. Sorry my response is late.

The disciplines of the Church are from the temporal authority, not from the teaching authority; so these are practices, not beliefs. A faithful Catholic might judge that a particular discipline is not expedient in a particular circumstance, or that the particular form for a liturgical service is flawed in some way, or that a particular provision of Canon Law (one that is not a direct expression of a matter of faith or morals) does not apply to a particular circumstance, etc.

Whatever is fallible is also dispensible.

Disciplines change over time. Disciplines are a practical necessity in this life, but they are not eternal truths of faith and morals (as the dogmas are). All discipline will pass away. All truths will never pass away.

If there is any problem or error in a discipline, it may well be corrected over time.
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Old 10th December 2009, 06:36 PM
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8. I confess that under either species alone the whole and complete Christ and the true sacrament are received.

9. I firmly hold that purgatory exists, and that the souls detained there are helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Likewise, that the saints reigning with Christ are to be honored and prayed to, and that they offer prayers to God on our behalf, and that their relics should be venerated.

[This includes both canonized Saints and all the elect in Heaven (the saints, generally). First Vatican Council taught that Purgatory exists, and that we help them with our prayers and sacrifices.]

10. I resolutely assert that images of

1. Christ and
2. the ever Virgin Mother of God, and likewise those of
3. the other saints, are to be kept and retained, and that due honor and reverence is to be shown them.

[This refutes an error of Protestantism. It also refutes a trend among some liberal Catholics, actually put into practice in some liberal parishes, where there are very few statues and devotional images, and even those that are present are very abstract.]

11. I affirm that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in the Church, and that their use is eminently beneficial to the Christian people.

12. I acknowledge the Holy, Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Church, the mother and mistress of all the Churches [1].

13. Likewise all other things which have been transmitted, defined and declared by the sacred canons and the ecumenical councils, especially the sacred Trent, I accept unhesitatingly and profess; in the same way whatever is to the contrary, and whatever heresies have been condemned, rejected and anathematized by the Church, I too condemn, reject and anathematize.

[The infallible teachings of the Church are required beliefs, under pain of heresy and mortal sin and excommunication.]

"This true Catholic faith, outside of which none can be saved, which I now freely profess and truly hold, is what I shall steadfastly maintain and confess, by the help of God, in all its completeness and purity until my dying breath, and I shall do my best to ensure [2] that all others do the same. This is what I, the same Pius, promise, vow and swear. So help me God and these holy gospels of God."

[The Church has repeatedly infallible declared that outside the Chuch, there is no salvation.]
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Old 10th December 2009, 09:28 PM
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Quote:
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I did not see this post until today. Sorry my response is late.

The disciplines of the Church are from the temporal authority, not from the teaching authority; so these are practices, not beliefs. A faithful Catholic might judge that a particular discipline is not expedient in a particular circumstance, or that the particular form for a liturgical service is flawed in some way, or that a particular provision of Canon Law (one that is not a direct expression of a matter of faith or morals) does not apply to a particular circumstance, etc.

Whatever is fallible is also dispensible.

Disciplines change over time. Disciplines are a practical necessity in this life, but they are not eternal truths of faith and morals (as the dogmas are). All discipline will pass away. All truths will never pass away.

If there is any problem or error in a discipline, it may well be corrected over time.

Thanks Ron.

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9. I firmly hold that purgatory exists, and that the souls detained there are helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Likewise, that the saints reigning with Christ are to be honored and prayed to, and that they offer prayers to God on our behalf, and that their relics should be venerated.

[This includes both canonized Saints and all the elect in Heaven (the saints, generally).

My mother tells me that she miscarried three of my brothers (twins before I was born and a sister after me). So, would it be reasonable for me to pray to them since I would know with certainty that they went to the eternal Heaven?...

I never knew them but I actually did prayed to them a couple of days ago that I was feeling very sick and asked for their intercession if it's true that they existed, that they are my blood brothers but were not permitted to live on this earth as my mother tells me.

Thanks!
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